C.) and the Second Intermediate Period (1786-1570 B. However, before narrowing down our dates for Joseph any more, let us first survey these two periods.The Middle Kingdom was one of Egypt’s three greatest ages (Hayes, 1964) (Aling, 1981).Under his immediate successors, fighting in Nubia subsided and trade received the main royal attentions.
He died by assassination, but not before he had associated his son Sesostris I with him on the throne as coregent.
Sesostris in his long reign (1971–1928 BC) campaigned with success in northern Nubia and built at no less than 35 sites in Egypt.
The final rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty (including one female king) were weak.
As central authority broke down, so did control of Egypt’s borders with Syria-Palestine.
Josephus, a Jewish historian writing in the first century AD during the days of the great Jewish Revolt against the Roman Empire and Rome’s armies led by Vespasian, said that the term “Hyksos” meant “Shepherd Kings.” This is of course quite wrong.
The name Hyksos comes from two Egyptian words meaning “Rulers of Foreign Lands, “and has nothing at all to do with shepherds.
We know little in detail of what Sesostris III did, but he did end the semi-independence of the so-called Nomarchs (provincial governors).
We will have occasion to return to this point later. C.) the Middle Kingdom reached its highest level of material prosperity. The exploitation of mines and quarries was greater than ever before, and a project to reclaim land in the Faiyum region to the west of the Nile valley was completed.
This enabled an ever-expanding infiltration of Asiatics to enter Egypt’s delta region.
Eventually these Asiatics were able to seize control of northern Egypt, thus ending the Middle Kingdom period of Egyptian history.
Mainline contemporary scholarship and the Bible’s own chronology are in accord in dating Joseph sometime between 20 BC.