This distinction is expressed in many languages by the use of two different verbs--by gnônai and eidénai, in Greek; by cognoscere and scire, in Latin, and by their derivatives in the Romance languages; in German by kennen and wissen.(1) Knowledge is essentially the consciousness of an object, i.e.Faith is based on the testimony of someone else-- God or man according as we speak of Divine or of human faith.
The man who asserts that he knows an occurrence to be a fact means that he is so certain of it as to have no doubt concerning its reality.
A pupil knows his lesson when he has mastered it and is able to recite it, and this, as the case may be, requires either mere retention in memory, or also, in addition to this retention, the intellectual work of understanding.
A science is known when its principles, methods, and conclusions are understood, and the various facts and laws referring to it co-ordinated and explained.
These various meanings may be reduced to two classes, one referring chiefly to sense-knowledge and to the recognition of particular experiences, the other referring chiefly to the understanding of general laws and principles.
A few judgments are reached immediately, but by far the greater number require patient investigation.
The mind is not merely passive in knowing, not a mirror or sensitized plate, in which objects picture themselves; it is also active in looking for conditions and causes, and in building up science out of the materials which it receives from experience.
To say that I know a certain man may mean simply that I have met him, and recognize him when I meet him again.
This implies the permanence of a mental image enabling me to discern this man from all others.
Any attempt to reduce the object to a purely subjective experience could result only in destroying the fact itself of knowledge, which implies the object, or not-self, as clearly as it does the subject, or self.
(2) Knowledge supposes a judgment, explicit or implicit.
Sometimes, also, more than the mere familiarity with external features is implied.