Exactly what developments took place where and when in the evolution of polyphony is not always clear, though some landmarks remain visible in the treatises.As in these instances, it is hard to evaluate the relative importance of treatises, whether they describe the 'actual' practice or a deviation of it.The earliest European sources of information concerning organum regard it as a well-known practice (Fuller 1990, p. Organum is also known to have been performed in several different rites, but the main wells of information concerning its history come from Gregorian chant.
It is made clear in the Musica enchiriadis that octave doubling was acceptable, since such doubling was inevitable when men and boys sang together.
The 9th-century treatise Scolica enchiriadis treats the subject in greater detail.
These innovations are grounded in the forms of Gregorian chant, and adhere to the theoretical rhythmic systems of St. It is the composers' love for cantus firmus that caused the notation of the tenor line to stay the same, even when the methods of penning music were changing.
It was the use of modal rhythm, however, that would make these two men great.
This kind of organum is now usually called parallel organum, although terms such as sinfonia or diaphonia were used in early treatises.
The history of organum would not be complete without two of its greatest innovators, Léonin and Pérotin.
It is also worth noting that strict parallel organum does not generally occur in either of these early treatises as an end in itself.
The treatises begin from a premise of parallelism and then move on to suggest better ways of making the organum, involving boundary tones, and the vast majority of musical examples in the treatises in fact use intervals of seconds, thirds, fourths, fifths, and sixths (by inversion/octave doubling), to create a more artistic result.
In its original conception, organum was never intended as polyphony in the modern sense; the added voice was intended as a reinforcement or harmonic enhancement of the plainchant at occasions of High Feasts of importance to further the splendour of the liturgy.
The analogue evolution of sacred architecture and music is evident: during previous centuries monophonic Mass was celebrated in Abbatial churches, in the course of the 12th and 13th centuries the newly consecrated cathedrals resounded with ever more complex forms of polyphony.
895), a treatise traditionally (and probably incorrectly) attributed to Hucbald of St. The oldest methods of teaching organum can be found in the Scolica and the Bamberg Dialogues, along with the Musica enchiriadis.