They integrate and now largely fulfill most people's needs for a telephone, digital camera and video camera, GPS navigation, a media player, clock, news, calculator, web browsing, handheld video games, flashlight, compass, an address book, a note-taking application, digital messaging, an event calendar, etc.
Typical smartphones will include one or more of the following sensors: magnetometer, proximity sensor, barometer, gyroscope or accelerometer.
In 1999 the Japanese firm NTT Do Co Mo released the first smartphones to achieve mass adoption within a country.
Since the early 2010's, smartphones have adopted integrated virtual assistants, such as Siri, Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana, and Bixby.
Most smartphones produced from 2012 onward have high-speed mobile broadband 4G LTE, motion sensors, and mobile payment features.
It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows.
In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks.
The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below.
The PDA provided e-mail; calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications; text-based Web browsing; and could send and receive faxes.
In the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC.
These operating systems would later evolve into early mobile operating systems.
The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show.